Living a Simple Life is a Happy Life

有饭吃,自由自在,就非常开心

Crawler ABC

| Comments

一个小爬虫的主要的套路就是requests, beautifulsoup, phantomjs.

requests

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
def get_html(url):
    headers = {
        'User-Agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64; rv:61.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/61.0',
        'Accept': 'application/json, text/plain, */*',
        'Accept-Language': 'zh-CN,zh;q=0.8,zh-TW;q=0.7,zh-HK;q=0.5,en-US;q=0.3,en;q=0.2',
        'Accept-Encoding': 'gzip, deflate, br',
        'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded',
    }
    resp = requests.get(url, headers=headers)
    if resp.status_code == 200:
        return resp.content
    else:
        raise ValueError("Not valid response:{}".format(resp.content))

beautifulsoup

1
2
3
4
5
6
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
def get_username(html):
    soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
    user_div = soup.find(id='uhd')
    username = user_div.find('h2', class_='mt').get_text().strip()
    return username

phantomjs

用法非常简单,但是每次都得去查文档,封装成一个傻瓜类比较实在

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
class WebClient(object):

    USER_AGENTS = [
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/22.0.1207.1 Safari/537.1",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; CrOS i686 2268.111.0) AppleWebKit/536.11 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1132.57 Safari/536.11",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1092.0 Safari/536.6",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1090.0 Safari/536.6",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.77.34.5 Safari/537.1",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/536.5 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1084.9 Safari/536.5",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.0) AppleWebKit/536.5 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1084.36 Safari/536.5",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.1) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; Trident/4.0; SE 2.X MetaSr 1.0; SE 2.X MetaSr 1.0; .NET CLR 2.0.50727; SE 2.X MetaSr 1.0)",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1062.0 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1062.0 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; 360SE)",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.0 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/535.24 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1055.1 Safari/535.24",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64) AppleWebKit/535.24 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1055.1 Safari/535.24",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/22.0.1207.1 Safari/537.1",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; CrOS i686 2268.111.0) AppleWebKit/536.11 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1132.57 Safari/536.11",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1092.0 Safari/536.6",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1090.0 Safari/536.6",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.77.34.5 Safari/537.1",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/536.5 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1084.9 Safari/536.5",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.0) AppleWebKit/536.5 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1084.36 Safari/536.5",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.1) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_8_0) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1062.0 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1062.0 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.0 Safari/536.3",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/535.24 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1055.1 Safari/535.24",
        "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64) AppleWebKit/535.24 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1055.1 Safari/535.24"
    ]

    def __init__(self, phantomjs_driver_path='/usr/local/bin/phantomjs'):
        # 引入配置对象DesiredCapabilities
        dcap = dict(DesiredCapabilities.PHANTOMJS)

        # 从USER_AGENTS列表中随机选一个浏览器头,伪装浏览器
        dcap["phantomjs.page.settings.userAgent"] = (random.choice(self.USER_AGENTS))

        # 不载入图片,爬页面速度会快很多
        dcap["phantomjs.page.settings.loadImages"] = False

        # 设置代理
        # service_args = ['--proxy=127.0.0.1:1080', '--proxy-type=http']

        # 打开带配置信息的phantomJS浏览器
        self._driver = webdriver.PhantomJS(phantomjs_driver_path, desired_capabilities=dcap)

        # 隐式等待5秒,可以自己调节
        self._driver.implicitly_wait(5)

        # 设置10秒页面超时返回,类似于requests.get()的timeout选项,driver.get()没有timeout选项
        # 以前遇到过driver.get(url)一直不返回,但也不报错的问题,这时程序会卡住,设置超时选项能解决这个问题。
        self._driver.set_page_load_timeout(10)
        # 设置10秒脚本超时时间
        self._driver.set_script_timeout(10)

    @property
    def driver(self):
        return self._driver

用起来也很简单,拿登陆163邮箱做例子:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
def login_163(email, password):
    login_url = 'http://m65.mm.mail.163.com/'
    driver = WebClient().driver
    driver.get(login_url)
    driver.implicitly_wait(10)

    try:
        driver.execute_script('document.querySelector(".m-footer").querySelector("a").click();')
        driver.execute_script('document.getElementById("entryMail").click();')
    except Exception as _:
        pass

    time.sleep(3)
    driver.find_element_by_xpath('//input[@name="username"]').send_keys(email.split('@')[0])
    driver.find_element_by_xpath('//input[@name="password"]').send_keys(password)
    mail_select = Select(driver.find_element_by_xpath('//select[@name="domain"]'))
    mail_select.select_by_value(email.split('@')[-1])
    # driver.save_screenshot(email + '.png')

    # submit
    driver.find_element_by_id('submit').submit()
    driver.implicitly_wait(10)
    time.sleep(5)
    # driver.save_screenshot(email + '.login.png')

    login_info = driver.find_element_by_xpath('//div[@class="fgreet"]/strong').text
    driver.quit()

    return login_info.strip() == email

Comments